23 diciembre 2010

La trampa del trabajo de bajas capacidades.

Mientras se continué en México pensando en el "modelo maquiladora" para crecer mediante exportaciones, no se lograra un mejoramiento de las condiciones laborales del país ni de la calidad de vida de sus habitantes. Esto se debe a que se basan en mano de obra barata y no se característicamente por generar innovaciones, tecnología o desarrollo. Por el contrario, tienden a perpetuar esta situación. Al respecto Felipe Jesús et al (20010) menciona: 

“Snower (1996) has argued that countries that try to progress by exploiting low labor costs (e.g., by restricting wages or through devaluations) may end up stuck in a vicious circle of low productivity, deficient training, and a lack of skilled jobs, therefore preventing key sectors from competing effectively in the markets for skill intensive products. This situation is referred to as a “low-skill, bad-job trap.” “Bad jobs” are associated with low wages and few opportunities to accumulate human capital. “Good jobs” demand higher skills and command higher wages. Innovating is crucial for developing technological capabilities, but it requires well-trained workers. Economies can get caught in a vicious circle in which firms do not innovate because the labor force is insufficiently skilled, and workers do not have incentives to invest in knowledge because there is no demand for these skills. Snower (1996) argues that the relatively low demand for and supply of skills in a country derives from rational decisions made by both firms and individuals within the particular legal and institutional framework in which they operate. Countries with a less-skilled workforce have greater incentives to produce nontraded services rather than tradables such as manufactured goods because the former are relatively protected from foreign competition. This pattern of specialization creates and perpetuates the demand for less-skilled labor.”

En lo que se tiene que trabajar es en una modificación de la estructura productiva. Estos párrafos me parece lo resumen bastante bien:

"Many countries have been able to exploit their low-wage advantage to attract foreign direct investment into many industries. However, the challenges to deepen industrial capabilities, upgrade the skills of the local labor force, set up and build innovation, research, and development capacity in the domestic economy, and move to high-value added and more sophisticated products are significant."

"Thus, structural transformation is the result of changes in underlying fundamentals such as education, financial resources, and overall productivity."

"A country’s ability to foray into new products depends on whether the set of existing capabilities can be easily redeployed for the production and export of new products."

"What are these capabilities? They are: (i) human and physical capital, the legal system, institutions, etc. that are needed to produce a product (hence, they are product-specific, not just a set of amorphous factor inputs); (ii) at the firm level, they are the “know-how” and working practices held collectively by the group of individuals comprising the firm; and (iii) the organizational abilities that provide the capacity to form, manage, and operate activities that involve large numbers of people."

Jesus Felipe, Utsav Kumar &Arnelyn Abdon, “How Rich Countries Became Rich and Why Poor Countries Remain Poor, It’s the Economic Structure . . . Duh!,” Levy Economics Institute of Board Collage, Working Paper No. 644 | December 2010

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